[CSS]じっくりコードを勉強したくなる、ブラウザのスタイルをリセットするスタイルシート -Normalize CSS

HTML5にもIE6にも対応した、ブラウザごとに異なる各要素のスタイルをリセットするスタイルシートを紹介します。

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Normalize CSS

Normalize CSSの主な特徴

Normalize CSSは、他のリセット用スタイルシートとは一味違った特徴を備えています。

  • 有用なデフォルトはそのまま
    多くのリセット用スタイルシートは異なり、有用なデフォルトのスタイルは維持します。
  • スタイルの正常化
    さまざまな種類のエレメントのスタイルを正常化します。
  • バグの修正
    各ブラウザごとの異なるスタイルやバグを修正します。
  • ユーザビリティの改善
    ほんのわずかな改良でユーザビリティを改善します。
  • コードの説明
    各コードには詳細な説明があります。

Normalize CSSの対応ブラウザ

対応ブラウザは下記の通りです。

  • Chrome
  • Firefox 3+
  • Safari 4+
  • Opera 10+
  • Internet Explorer 6+

Normalize CSSのデモ

デモページでは、さまざまな要素がどのようにリセットされるかを確認できます。

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スタイルをリセットしたデモページ

デモページはかなり長く、上記の見出しだけでなく、リスト、フォームなどたくさんあります。

Normalize CSSの使い方

Normalize CSSの使い方は簡単です。
そのまま使用してもよし、必要な箇所のみカスタマイズして使用してもよし、です。

Normalize CSSの中身は、下記のようになっています。

CSS: Normalize CSS

2011.6.1リリース版です。

/* =============================================================================
   HTML5 element display
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Add display for block-level HTML5 elements
 * Addresses display not defined in IE6/7/8/9 & FF3
 */

article,
aside,
details,
figcaption,
figure,
footer,
header,
hgroup,
nav,
section {
    display: block;
}

/*
 * Add display for embedded HTML5 elements
 * Addresses display not defined in IE6/7/8/9 & FF3
 */

audio[controls],
canvas,
video {
    display: inline-block;
    *display: inline;
    *zoom: 1;
}


/* =============================================================================
   Base
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * 1. Add vertical scrollbar
 *    Keeps page centred in all browsers regardless of content height
 * 2. Remove Android and iOS tap highlight color to prevent entire container being highlighted
 *    www.yuiblog.com/blog/2010/10/01/quick-tip-customizing-the-mobile-safari-tap-highlight-color/
 * 3. Remove iOS text size adjust without disabling user zoom
 *    www.456bereastreet.com/archive/201012/controlling_text_size_in_safari_for_ios_without_disabling_user_zoom/
 */

html {
    overflow-y: scroll; /* 1 */
    -webkit-tap-highlight-color: rgba(0,0,0,0); /* 2 */
    -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%; /* 3 */
    -ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
}

/*
 * 1. Define the base font-size (using % or em will retain text resizing in IE6/7)
 * 2. Define the base line-height.
 * 3. Remove margin
 */

body {
    font-size: 100%; /* 1 */
    line-height: normal; /* 2 */
    margin: 0; /* 3 */
}

/* 
 * Define base font-family
 * Addresses font-family inconsistency between <textarea> and other form elements.
 */

body,
input,
button, 
textarea,
select {
    font-family: sans-serif;
}

/*
 * 1. Remove border
 *    Improves readability when inside <a> element in all browsers
 * 2. Allow high quality bicubic image resampling
 *    Improves readability when scaled in IE7
 *    Read before using : code.flickr.com/blog/2008/11/12/on-ui-quality-the-little-things-client-side-image-resizing/
 */

img {
    border: 0; /* 1 */
    -ms-interpolation-mode: bicubic; /* 2 */
}


/* =============================================================================
   Links
   ========================================================================== */

a {
    color: #00e;
}

a:visited {
    color: #551a8b;
}

/*
 * Define outline as thin dotted
 * Addresses outline displayed oddly in Chrome
 */

a:focus {
    outline: thin dotted;
}

/*
 * Remove outline
 * Improves readability when focused and also mouse hovered in all browsers
 * people.opera.com/patrickl/experiments/keyboard/test
 */

a:hover,
a:active {
    outline: 0;
}


/* =============================================================================
   Typography
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Add bottom border
 * Fixes styling not present in IE7/8/9 S5 Chrome
 */

abbr[title] {
    border-bottom: 1px dotted;
}

/*
 * Add bold font weight
 * Fixes style set to 'bolder' in FF3/4 S4/5 Chrome
*/

b, 
strong { 
    font-weight: bold; 
}

blockquote {
    margin: 1em 40px;
}

/*
 * Add italic font style
 * Fixes styling not present in S5 Chrome
 */

dfn {
    font-style: italic;
}

/*
 * Add yellow background and black text
 * Fixes styling not present in IE6/7/8/9
 */

mark {
    background: #ff0;
    color: #000;
}

/*
 * Redeclare monospace font family
 * en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Davidgothberg/Test59
 * 1. Fixes font family set oddly in S5 Chrome
 * 2. Fixes monospace font family set oddly in IE6
 */

pre,
code,
kbd,
samp {
    font-family: monospace, monospace; /* 1 */
    _font-family: 'courier new', monospace; /* 2 */
    font-size: 1em;
}

/*
 * Add line wrapping
 * Improves readability of pre-formatted text in all browsers
 */

pre {
    white-space: pre;
    white-space: pre-wrap;
    word-wrap: break-word;
}

/*
 * Remove quotes
 * 1. Addresses CSS quotes not supported in IE6/7
 * 2. Addresses quote property not supported in S4
 */

/* 1 */

q {
    quotes: none;
}

/* 2 */

q:before,
q:after {
    content: '';
    content: none;
}

/*
 * Define font-size
 */

small {
    font-size: 75%;
}

/*
 * Position subscript and superscript content without affecting line-height
 * Fixes alignment within multi-line text displayed oddly in all browsers
 * gist.github.com/413930
 */

sub,
sup {
    font-size: 75%;
    line-height: 0;
    position: relative;
    vertical-align: baseline;
}

sup {
    top: -0.5em;
}

sub {
    bottom: -0.25em;
}


/* =============================================================================
   Lists
   ========================================================================== */

ul,
ol {
    margin: 1em 0;
    padding: 0 0 0 40px;
}

dd {
    margin: 0 0 0 40px;
}

nav ul,
nav ol {
    list-style: none;
}


/* =============================================================================
   Figures
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Remove margin
 * Addresses margin not present in IE6/7/8/9, S5, O11
 */

figure {
    margin: 0;
}


/* =============================================================================
   Forms
   ========================================================================== */

/*
 * Remove margin
 * Fixes styling in IE6/7
 */

form {
    margin: 0;
}

/*
 * Define consistent margin and padding
 */

fieldset {
    margin: 0 2px;
    padding: 0.35em 0.625em 0.75em;
}

/*
 * Add negative left margin
 * Fixes alignment displayed oddly in IE6/7
 */

legend {
    *margin-left: -7px;
}

/*
 * 1. Define font-size as equal to ancestor's
 * 2. Remove margin
 *    Fixes different margins set in FF3/4 S5 Chrome
 * 3. Define consistent vertical alignment display in all browsers
 */

button,
input,
select,
textarea {
    font-size: 100%; /* 1 */
    margin: 0; /* 2 */
    vertical-align: baseline; /* 3 */
    *vertical-align: middle; /* 3 */
}

/*
 * 1. Define line-height as normal
 *    Addresses FF3/4 setting it using !important in the UA stylesheet
 * 2. Make overflow visible
 *    Fixes spacing displayed oddly in IE6/7
 */

button,
input {
    line-height: normal; /* 1 */
    *overflow: visible;  /* 2 */
}

/*
 * 1. Display hand cursor for clickable form elements
 *    Improves usability and consistency of cursor style between image-type <input> and others
 * 2. Define appearance for clickable form elements
 *    Fixes inability to style clickable <input> types in iOS
 */

button,
input[type="button"], 
input[type="reset"], 
input[type="submit"] {
    cursor: pointer; /* 1 */
    -webkit-appearance: button; /* 2 */
}

/*
 * Define box sizing
 * Addresses box sizing set to content-box in IE8/9
 */

input[type="checkbox"],
input[type="radio"] {
    box-sizing: border-box;
}

/*
 * Define box sizing and appearance
 * Addresses box sizing set to border-box in S5 Chrome (include -moz to future-proof)
 * Addresses appearance set to searchfield in S5 Chrome
 */

input[type="search"] {
    -webkit-appearance: textfield;
    -moz-box-sizing: content-box;
    -webkit-box-sizing: content-box;
    box-sizing: content-box;
}

/*
 * Remove WebKit search decoration
 * Addresses inner padding displaying oddly in S5 Chrome on OSX
 */

input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-decoration {
    -webkit-appearance: none;
}

/*
 * Remove inner padding and border 
 * Fixes appearance displayed oddly in FF3/4
 * www.sitepen.com/blog/2008/05/14/the-devils-in-the-details-fixing-dojos-toolbar-buttons/
 */

button::-moz-focus-inner,
input::-moz-focus-inner {
    border: 0;
    padding: 0;
}

/*
 * 1. Remove default vertical scrollbar
 *    Fixes scrollbar displayed oddly in IE6/7/8/9
 * 2. Add top vertical alignment
 *    Improves readability and aligment in all browsers
 */

textarea {
    overflow: auto; /* 1 */
    vertical-align: top; /* 2 */
}


/* =============================================================================
   Tables
   ========================================================================== */

/* 
 * Remove most spacing between table cells
 * Consistent vertical and horizontal alignment in all browsers
 */

table {
    border-collapse: collapse;
    border-spacing: 0;
}

th,
td {
    padding: 0;
    text-align: left;
    vertical-align: middle;
}

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